BigWindow BackArrow To Top

Answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's)

Click on the question or statement to go to an answer. Some items will take you down this list to the answer; others may go to another page.

Click the "To Top" button on the lower right side to return to this index. The "Back" button will take you to the last major page you were on.
Please submit other subjects that may need an explanation or answer. Updated Nov 2021.

1. How to Search the Centuar website for anything ........................................................................................................Search

2. Define the Centaur Legacy..............................................................................................................................................Legacy
3. Who is considered to be a Centaur? LRRPs that are Centaurs? CIVO?..................................................................Centaur
4. Are people checked to see if they are really a Centaur in good standing?..................................................Quality Control
5. What is meant by the term "Stolen Valor"?............................................................................................................Stolen Valor
6. Who is considered for listing on the Centaur "Friends" Roster?...............................................................................Friends
7. Why is the site limited to Centaurs who served in Vietnam?.................................................................................Limitations
8. What happened to the old website ""?.............................................................................................Old Website
9. How were the Board of Directors selected? ...........................................................................................................The Board
10. Why don't we charge money or ask for money for the organization?......................................................................No Fees
11. How do I get into contact with another Centaur?.................................................................................Contacting Centaurs
12. What is meant by : MyPage (& Photoless) - Dual - MyPagePhotos?................................MyPage - Dual - MyPagePhotos
13. What is the difference between a Slide Show and a Photo Album?.......................................Slide Show vs Photo Album
14. What is meant by the website term "InfoSheet" and "Index of Articles"?.............................InfoSheet - Index of Articles
15. Will my submitted photos be retouched/restored?....................................................................................Restoring Photos
16. Why hasn't my Photo Album been posted to the new website?.................................................................My Photo Album
17. How do I prepare photos for a Website Photo Album?.............................................................................Photo Preparation
18. Define the different types of War Stories. Where they are located?) (Essay, Discussion, PhotoStory)........War Stories
19. How to do a video for the website....................................................................................................................................Video
20. How to make digital copies of 35mm slides..............................................................................................Copy 35mm Slides
21. How can I hyperlink words in my email messages?................................................................................................Email Tip
22. What is meant by email "Thread Management" as it pertains to data collection for the website?..............Email Thread
23. Can an average non-technical person help with the design of the Website?..................................................Design Help
24. What to do with 8mm/Super 8 Movies from in country...............................................................................8mm Nam Movies
25. Centaur Society page.........History of the Centaur Society..........................................................................Centaur Society
26. Why doesn't the Centaur Organization use social network software such as Facebook, Google+, or Twitter?.. Privacy
27. Can I copy the Centaur Monthly Newsletters to friends?.................................................................Forwarding Newsletter
28. Pilots, especially, need to smooth out their technical jargon.........................................................................Keep it simple
29. Why does my browser often not show announced updates to the Centaur website?..........................Empty your Cache
30. Why don't we have a website Guestbook?.......................................................................................................No Guestbook
31. What is an "Essay" for the Centaur website?................................................................................................................Essays
32. What was II Field Force?......................................................................................................................................II Field Forces
33. Where can I get free copies of 1:50,000 maps of Vietnam? .............................................................................Vietnam Maps
34. Where can I get an inexpensive copy of Michael Kelley's book "Where We Were In Vietnam"?.............Where We Were

35. How to send your really large photos or files to the Webmaster.............................................................Large file transfer

36. Why doesn't my "Back" Button work? ..........................................................................................................The Back Button

37. How to view and control a Slide Show. ..........................................................................................................View Slide Show

38. How to get a CIVO Brain Supplement Card (Centaurs email webmaster for info)................Identification Card (BS Card)

39. How to receive the CIVO (Centaur) Monthly Newsletters ...........................................................................CIVO Newsletter

40. Where are the links to other websites? ...........................................................................................................................Links

41. Is there a single page Outline or Site Map for this website?.....................................................................................Site Map

42. How can I find old articles from the Tropic Lightning Newspaper?................................................Tropic Lightning News

43. What is a LRRP? ......Pronounced "Lerp".........................................................................LRRP (Long Range Recon Patrol)

44. How to find and use the HTML address of any website page................................................................HTML page address

45. Why is our Glossary different from other Vietnam Glossaries on the internet?....................................................Glossary

46. What is the red and black patch worn by some F Troopers on their left shoulder?.........................................HunterKiller

47. Proper wear of the Cavalry Stenson Hat and Spurs ......................................................................................Stenson/Spurs

48. Who attended the 2016 Harrisburg, PA Reunion?.............................................................................................2016 Reunion

49. The Wall..........................................................................................................................................................................The Wall

50. What is the difference in the website categories of War Stories (Video, Essay, Discussion)?;
and how are they different from items under the "PhotoAudioFilm" navigation button?
.....War Stories & PhotoAudioFilm

51. How to post items on the Centaur website.....................................................................................................Website Posting

52. What is a Centaur BS Card (Brain Supplement)?........................................................................................................BS Card

53. What is the Centaur "Subscriber List"?............................................................................................................Subscriber List

54. Was D Troop (Air) ever opcon to 2nd Bde or 25th Avn Bn, 25th Inf Div?........................................................D Trp OPCON

55. Did Centaur aircraft receive the engine exhaust modification nicknamed the Toilet Bowl?............................Toilet Bowl

56. How to copy your photos for publishing on the website..............................................................................Copy your photos

57. Are the photos from the three Centaur Yearbooks available on the website?.......................................Centaur Yearbooks

58. How to watch Centaur Videos in Full Screen.................................................................................................Full Screen Video

59. How to order Centaur Shirts, Hats and Patches........................................................................................Shirts/Hats/Patches

60. What Scholarships are available for Centaur Families?.........................................................................................Scholarship

61. Find where Centaurs were based using Google Earth app...... Download Interactive Crash Map........Google Earth Maps

62. Show a listing of all cities, tactical postions and other significant places.......................................................Map Locations

63. Show a map of South Vietnam with all of the cities where Centaurs may have operated ................................Vietnam Map

64. How to search the Centaur Website ............................................................................................................Search our website

65. How to replicate or build something similiar to the Centaur Website...................................................Replicate the website

66. Looking Back at the Facts of the Vietnam War.........................................................................Vietnam War Facts & Analysis

67. How to find Maps, Areas of Operation, Check Points for Troop/Sqdn&Division............................................Maps and stuff

68. Answers concerning questions about the Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with Palm...............................Vietnamese Award

69: Will our website continue to survive as time moves on ( Machine

70: Want to help us find more Centaurs? I might cost you a little time and money...............................................Centaur Poster

71: How to provide input to the Website and Newsletter.......................................................................................Email your Input

72: How to hard refresh your browser and clear your cache.......(Loose the "Not Secure" Alert).........................Hard Reset Your browser

2. Define the Centaur Legacy

"The recording and presentation of the entire "Centaur's In Vietnam" experience."

In the short time we all have left, only a modern multimedia website has a chance at accomplishing that mission.

At first the legacy seemed to be another book; a Second Year Book. But as we progressed with this project it became clear that the book would only be a stepping stone on the path to a true legacy. The second book may happen, and maybe more will follow; but the primary vehicle for forming the Centaur Legacy has become this new multimedia website. The website is the only way that we can collect and get our total Legacy out within our limited lifetimes.

Time has become the major hurdle. The Time Factor may not yet have entered the thoughts of all our Centaur youngsters (those under 70), but it should. Many have not retired and have little time to spend with really old guys. Doing it next month or at the next reunion is just fine with most of them.

Soon many of them will slow down, look back and realize that they could have spent a couple hours helping out, back when so and so was still alive. That regret can be hurtful. We need to encourage them to be spared from that regret with aggressive plans to seek their participation now; and for them to reap the personal rewards that many of us have already been granted.

3. Who is considered to be a Centaur? Centaur LRRPs? CIVO?

A Centaur is anyone who was assigned or attached to D or F Troop (Air) during the Vietnam War. They are all declared to be lifetime members of the “Centaurs In Vietnam Organization” (CIVO).

Units in Vietnam used radio code names to identify themselves. D Troop, which later became F Troop, used the radio code name “Centaur.” Adding a number to it made it a “Call Sign.” For example: “Centaur 6” was the Commanding Officer; “Centaur 40” was a Section Leader, etc.

Many job positions did not require a radio "Call Sign", but those men were "Centaurs" anyway. Most were proud to be called a “Centaur” even if their job did not require a “Call Sign”. Even those attached to the unit were considered to be a “Centaur”; for example our Long Range Recon Patrol (LRRP) soldiers and our attached Forward Artillery Observers had their own radio call signs, yet we considered them to be "Centaurs" and part of the Centaurs In Vietnam Organization.

The LRRP Detachment did not have a formal organizational document, so they were all assigned to Troop D.

Any LRRP's (Long Range Recon Patrol) assigned before 12/20/1967 to the 25th Inf Div, is considered a "Centaur LRRP".

Co F, 50th Inf was activated on 20 Dec 67 and absorbed all of the troops from the LRRP Detachment.  F/50 was a separate company and was attached for support to the 3/4 Cav.

Co F, 75th Inf (Ranger) was activated on 1 Feb 69 and absorbed the personnel and equipment from F/50.  It was a separate company and was attached for support to the 3/4 Cav.

Since F/50 and F/75 were not part of or attached to D Troop, they are not considered to be Centaurs.  They are, however, considered to be “Friends” of the Centaurs and their names added to the “Friends” roster.  If a trooper was in F/50 or F/75 and then transferred to D Trp, he would be a Centaur.  (We would need some sort of official document showing his assignment or attachment to the troop.)

6. Who is considered for listing on the Centaur "Friends" Roster?

We couldn't imagine telling the Centaur story without including the personal and heartfelt input of other 3/4 Cav Troopers and those from supported units. Rex Gooch, C Troop, 3rd of the 17th Air Cavalry, being a good example. Chuck Martin brings in the Tech Reps for consideration.

Many LRRP's who served with the 25th Div after 12/20/1967, have provided Centaur Stories and other input. Since they do not meet our official definition to be called a Centaur, their names are included on the "Centaur Friends" Roster, instead of the "Centaur" Roster.

We have found that people that may not have been born until after the war; sons, daughters, grandkids, can contribute. How about relatives, wifes, girlfriends and such? If they can add to the legacy story then they make the list.

Anyone who can add to the Centaur Legacy can become a Centaur Friend.

7. Why is the site limited to Centaurs who served in Vietnam?

We were very concerned at the start of this ambitious project that our tendency would be to try to cover too much material. Many websites fall into that situation and therefore become confusing and disjointed. Only the most spectacular people and events get covered. Not enough is done to honor those soldiers who were not necessarily in the spotlight. By limiting our "Scope" we felt that we could honor, or at least try to honor, every single man of that timeframe and unit. It is very challenging. Over 600 have been identified so far, with as many as 1800 total being sought out.

8. What happened to the old website ""?

In March of 2015 the old website was dropped and anyone trying to go there is now routed to this new site.

9. How were the Board of Directors selected?

Originally they were not selected. A group of Centaur workhorses just got together and declared themselves the "Board". Additional members were invited based on their willingness to invest their valuable personal time and money in the Centaur Legacy mission.

Being on the Board is not intended to be a political position or position of honor; but one of hard working, getting the job done, mission oriented Centaurs. Most Centaurs just can't give up that kind of personal time for a single cause.

The "Centaur Society" was formed for those who wanted to help, when they could, but not be tied to the heavier obligations of the "Board".

10. Why don't we charge money or ask for money for the organization?

In order for us to accomplish the website mission of having a site page ("MyPage") for every Vietnam Centaur, we felt that more people would be interested in helping if we were not asking for donations. We felt strongly enough about the mission to just fund whatever needed funding, from our own pockets. Periodically we would pass the hat for a particular project; like Dale Dow did to get the "Memorial Bricks" and money for distributing the "Centaur Brothers DVD".

Other Centaurs pointed out that we should have a general "Donations" fund so that those who cannot afford to donate time could feel like they were helping by donating some money. So we do that now, but not as much for the money as for presenting the opportunity for other Centaurs to feel like they are helping.

We are a nonprofit organization, but not a 501c3. Therefore any donation made to the organization truly comes from the heart and is NOT a tax write-off. See "Donations".

11. How do I get into contact with another Centaur?

Send an email to the Webmaster (Bruce requesting the address or info you want. He will provide information when he can. He does not give out any email addresses unless the owner has said it is okay.

He will contact them for you. For contacts with the website folks go to "Contact Us".


12. What is meant by the website term "InfoSheet" and "Index of Articles"?

Initially the purpose of the "InfoSheet" was to have a text page that could be attached (linked) to a MyPage or Memoriam Page, that provided additional information about that person. Examples are a biography, a personal statement about himself, notes from friends, or any other information that is not covered in an article or story that is already linked.

In that vein we are now trying to pick up on any emails, old or new, that might help in getting and displaying more information about each man. These emails will be posted on the man's InfoSheet where appropriate. Some of the info may be dead wrong and that's okay; it will get corrected if enough people see it. This is a much more time consuming procedure for a webmaster but more targeted and valuable than other methods such as the Guestbook idea.

Collection of specific emails has been going on for sometime with KIA and Deceased Centaurs; like emails gathered from Obituary columns and such. Now we need to open it up for all pages and all emails.

Review your old letters and emails and see if there isn't some things that should be posted on a Centaur's MyPage and provide more quality information. I do periodic searches on my old emails and once in a while find some good stuff that gets posted.

The Index of Articles is similar to an InfoSheet but it is an index of that man's articles with summaries. The InfoSheet has data like a Bio, facts about his tour, testimonies from others (emails), and things like that. The Index of Articles includes the War Story Essays that he wrote or was significantly involved with, videos or film that he is in, magazine articles he wrote, audio stories, and such.

Why hasn't my Photo Album been posted to the new website?

Since we have a one man design and coding operation for our site (Powell) work must be prioritized. We decided that recruiting more Centaurs into the fold, building the structure of the site, creating individual "MyPages", and "gathering" the photos must take priority.

When photos are received by Powell they are digitized and backed up onto a computer. That collection has been growing since the original photo collections of Powell, Taylor, and Lange in 2010 (which have not yet been made into Photo Albums). There are now hundreds, maybe thousands of photos in that collection. In addition there are still photos from the old website that need to be transferred over. Building of the MyPages (Duals and TextPhotos), War Stories and such require photos. Most are drawn from that collection.

Photo Albums vary in number of pictures from around 25 to 250. Organizing, retouching and preparing each photo for the web is very time-consuming. Then there is the hand coding of each thumbnail, photo and caption into the slideshow template of the site. If we changed the priority to doing Albums then further work on the website would cease for about 2 years. That time would be greatly reduced if we had more Photoshop people with time to spare. (see How do I prepare photos for a Website Photo Album?)

The Bob Maxey Photo Album was an experiment to see if a better, multimedia way of presenting photos could be built. The Burgess/Cooke Album was another experiment using a large number of photos. The lessons learned from these experiments have produced a new method for preparing photos and coding them into the site which is simpler and faster. With this new method we may be able to recruit you or others to give it a go and become one of our Album builders. (see How do I prepare photos for a Website Photo Album?)


18. Define the different types of War Stories and where they are located

War Stories are any stories or information that add to, or more clearly define, the Centaur Legacy.

War Stories are broken down into three categories: Video, Essays and Discussion. Click the War Stories navigation button and the War Stories section opens to a list of War Story Videos. At the top of the page are Video, Essay and Discussion buttons. Click the "Essay" button to go to a list of all our War Story Essays. The Discussion button takes you to a list of War Story topics that are being discussed. Comments (email), photos and any other information about that subject are presented on that Discussion page.

A PhotoStory is a photo that encourages or initiates Discussion. It is a kind of War Story Discussion page. PhotoStories are listed at the bottom of the War Story Discussion page and have a light yellow background color to make them easier to spot.

Each of us had little or no time and experience with the other mans job. We were to busy learning and growing in our own position. That's why it is so important to get stories from every angle and from each participant. That way we all can see the bigger picture of what went on.

As we write our Legacy for the Centaur Units, we need to hear from every man, every position, and every tour. It is time to record those things and better understand and appreciate all the different experiences, troubles, special training, lessons learned, and such from every Centaur.

19.How to do a video for the website

With all the modern technology at our fingertips anyone can produce a good video.

For some tips see "How to do a video" article.

20. How to make digital copies of 35mm slides

Pretty good quality digital copies of slides can be done at home with a slide projector and modern digital camera.

See article "MakingDigitalCopies"

21. How can I Hyperlink words in my email messages?

Most word processors use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+K (or Cmd+K on Mac) to insert a hyperlink into a text word or phrase. Begin by going to the webpage that you want to link to and copy the address (the HTTP address box). Go back to your email message and select the text that you want to link to that webpage. Enter Ctrl+K (or Cmd+K on Mac) and a box will pop up asking you for the link address. Paste (Ctrl+V or Cmd+V) the address from your clipboard (memory) into that box and click "OK".

For example: I'm writting an email to "Bob" and copying other people. The other people know a lot of Bob's and may not know who I'm referring to. Even the email address may not help. So I really should type his full name in at the top and maybe a link to his "MyPage" like this:

Bob (Robert Taylor -

Using the procedure above I can highlight the "Bob" text and link it too his Mypage like this:


The viewer just clicks on Bob instead of having to type in a long http address to find out who Bob is.

You can use this idea with any of the text in your email.


22. What is meant by email "Thread Management" as it pertains to data collection for the website?

Management by Subject (title of the email), is called "Threads". The idea is to maintain the original email subject title for any responses to that subject. Keeps all the data under one name and makes it easier to find.

No doubt that you remember something in an old email that you need to find; and you can't find it. It can be really tough. Particularly if it is mixed in under another subject title.

Just imagine how difficult it is when we are trying to go back through the thousands of Centaur emails, trying to find bits and pieces of stories, names, dates and such for use in building the website. It seems impossible to get anything done. If "Thread Management" is used by all, that task becomes much easier.

Another additional way to more efficiently capture all this data is to have volunteers who make it their job to seek out all old and new emails that have information on a particular subject. If they can become known as the guy collecting that particular info then more people will be sending stuff to them. For example, if everyone knows that Terry Vaughn is trying to keep track of all the Centaur call signs, who had them and when, then the rest of us finding information on that subject would be sure to copy him. Mike Vaughn is seeking information on KIA's and Deceased so that our In Memoriam section is more complete. Nick LaRich is gathering ideas for Marketing of the Centaur website for when it becomes fully active. Bruce Powell wants any input that can help the new website function better and be more accurate.


23. Can an average non-technical person help with the design of the Website?

Yes! Sometimes input from a non-technical person is even more valuable. We all know what we like and what we don't like. Don't be bothered with whether something can be technically done or not; just point out how you would like to see it done and let the technical weenies find a way to do it.

Another approach you might try: Read the article on "Website Attitude and Pitch", then play with the existing website and see where it doesn't quite meet those concepts, in your view.


24. What to do with 8mm/Super 8 Movies from in country

Now that we have a person with knowledge and equipment to do a halfway decent job with old 8 and Super 8 movies, we ask for your help in seeking out these lost gems. Call your friends and ask them. Even if they don't want to be involved, they may let us use their movies. Contact Bruce Powell ( for a current address to mail them to. They will be mailed back or returned at the next reunion (as you request).

The movies may not get finalized and up on the website right away because it is quite a process; but can and will be digitized immediately. That way, the data will never be lost.  

When you get some time, please review this movie about the importance of old movies:

Gather and get your movies in as soon as you can.


25. History of the Centaur Society

(Written July 2011 to the Society by Bruce Powell) - Centaur Society page

Twenty years ago I started to write a book based on my Centaur memories, old photos, and the letters (and audio tapes) sent home to my parents and family. Mom saved everything. It was fun for a while but it was just too all consuming. I'm not a writer, I can't spell, I had a business to run, a life to live. Everytime I would get rolling my memory would fail me. "Was that LT Johnson or was that WO Arthur?" "Did someone get wounded."  "What was that ground commanders name?" "What was the tail number?" and so on as I'm sure you can relate to. This project went back to the attic. 

Due to the persistent efforts of Dale Dow and my best friend Tom Meeks, my wife and I attended a reunion (2006 Kansas City). It was a bit hectic, all those old people there, too many events, couldn't see the name tags. But Tom and Dale were there, so all was well; then I ran into Tom Fleming (what a memory this guy has), Buck Buxton, Harold Fisher, Charlie Johnson, and many others. The magic began. How many others were there that I didn't get to see and talk to because of time and not recognizing them?

I was more prepared for the Tucson reunion. I knew Warren Waite my Cobra crewchief, and TJ Lange my UH-1 crewchief would be there. I was really looking forward to seeing them. I got to see Pat Eastes, Rick Arthur, Charlie Rice, Mike Seigel, John Kelly, Woody Gardner, Paul Davidson, and a long list of others. I was hooked on this adrenaline flow. I wanted more! I wanted more Centaurs to feel it! Time to get off my butt and do something about it. It has been dormant for too many years.

I attempted to start what I call the "Timeline Project" which would have gathered and sorted the many old letters and things that my folks saved in the attic, pertaining to my long tour (Jan 67 to Aug 68); extracting the personal stuff and so on. Emphasis would be on time and date stamping of everything. This chronology, with even trivial stuff in it, like so and so went on leave today, could trigger the memories of others, particularly as these small parts would be seen against a background reference of date/time. 

Had I gotten my timeline together, I was going to get it to TJ Lange (CE 462) who was there for the same year and one half as I was. With his tidbits and memories added, it would be published on the website and become a master roadmap for the other Centaurs of that era. Possibly other era Centaurs would continue it for a master "Centaurs In Vietnam - Timeline". It could continue to grow as long as some of us are still alive.

Centaur Brothers DVD:
As I reviewed the movies that I had taken at the War Stories Session (Tucson reunion), the idea of getting these gritty stories, these faces and voices of the men who were there, out to other Centaurs might prove to be more effective at bringing more people in than anything to date. We might be able to accelerate the process of bringing people in and building the Centaur Legacy in whatever format possible (Books, articles, DVD series, Website). At our age we need to "Getter Done Now".

I had to drop the timeline idea in favor of the "Centaur Brothers DVD" project, even though the DVD idea looked staggering in its size and scope. I wasn't sure if I could pull it off. (Just one of these projects can be enough to ruin a marriage. We all have our current lives to live and can only donate so much time).

I chose the "DVD" project because I saw it as the best chance to quickly boost the many efforts of Dale Dow, Tom Fleming and others to get more Centaurs involved and to attend the Kentucky Reunion. More Centaurs, more action.

Getting input for the Second Year Book was a secondary mission that has already proved successful.

Seeds of the Centaur Society idea:
It was clear to me that the Timeline, and the Book, and the Website, and the Centaur Brothers DVD, are all great ideas; however, none will be done justice without more Centaurs involved. All of these projects attempt to create involvement; and all do to some degree; but not enough. There must be other ways.

Involvement, bringing people in, has always been the answer. Everyone is busy with their life and hesitant to bring up the 40 some year old memories which may cause them anguish or pain. What will it take to get them excited? Not everyone has felt the joy we have at the reunions, the satisfaction of unclogged memories, the personal satisfaction of being recognized and appreciated by people we admire.

Involvement normally works best on a one to one basis. Some of us have stayed life long friends. Maybe a few great emails from others here and there. Then we get back to our lives, or the emails degrade to exchanging "Forwards" and other somewhat meaningless things, then fade away. So, besides reunions, how could "Involvement" be generated/accelerated with a group approach?

Centaur Society: 
My thoughts were driven to the Centaur Society idea. Create an email list of dedicated, like minded Centaurs, that are willing to monitor regularly the "Centaurs only" email traffic, not unlike looking at the Drudge Report or the morning newspaper, and then contributing when they can. The key to it would be to maintain the privacy and integrity of the list so it doesn't get used for other well intentioned purposes. Social applications like Facebook are not secure enough (too public). It would also be very important to not add anyone to the list that unless certain requirements are met:

1. They personally request to be put on the list. No one goes on the list without a personal request.
2. Has reviewed the few requirements that we ask: (Security of the list, no crap or non Centaur stuff, respect of the other members privacy.)
3. Stay up to date by frequenting the website for past articles and conversations that they may have missed.
4. Make a personal effort to bring others into the group.

I went ahead with the help and blessing of the usual Centaur workhorses (Fleming, Dow, Arthur, Johnson, Cowell) and others. I had no idea that it would be so much work to keep the idea alive. Even though it set my DVD project back by a couple months it has added to the quality of it (more info, pictures, video, etc). 

You can see the results of our small Society so far. It is like having a "Google" just for Centaurs. You can put up a question or partial memory and the current 23 members (88 as of May 2015) will look at it, check their notes, etc and possibly provide you with some information you would have no other way to get. You may not get an answer; but just imagine if we had 123 members or so! Oh, the answers we could get! Might be a bit hard to manage. At that point the website will also have grown, as it is doing right now, and may take care of a lot of the Society traffic. I just don't know yet. I just know we need more effort by more people. 

26. Why doesn't the Centaur Organization use social network software services such as Facebook, Google+, or Twitter for their interactions?

Many Centaurs do not want their email address distributed on a social network. There is just too much baggage attached. Privacy is an issue. Buy using a "protected" email list, meaning protected by Gentlemen's Agreement and policed by the Webmaster, we have more control and can better insure that our emails remain relatively private.

The Centaurs can be broken down into many different groups. Many stay in contact because they were friends, hootch mates, and so on. Many other subjects, besides Vietnam, are batted around. Soon the "Forwards" begin (the "you just gotta see this" and "send this to 10 friends or the world will end" type emails). Next is that the depth of the BS increases. There is nothing wrong with these things as long as no one in that group is bothered by it. 

When you try to mix all those groups into one group for the purpose of gathering specific data, like for this website, it becomes unmanageable. The guys from 1966 most likely will not be interested in the BS from the 1969 guys. Someone may send a great "Forward", but then you get it from ten different people. Your email box gets filled up. Nobody wants to "sign up" for increased junk mail. This makes it hard to get people to sign up for something like the Society unless we can guarantee reasonable control.

We decided to "guarantee" that if a person signed up for the Newsletter that the email address would not be given out or used for any other purpose.

27. Can I send a copy of the Monthly Newsletter to friends?

Yes, but let your friends know that they are free to sign up for a free subscription to the Newsletter. Just email the webmaster to be added to a private distribution list and receive a blind copy of the Newsletter monthly.

28. Pilots, especially, need to smooth out their technical jargon

Pilots should take some time to better explain the things they had to go through to keep the aircraft from crashing. Most of you pilots remember clearly some of the aerodynamic features of your aircraft through training and hair raising experiences. Often, not enough time is taken to clearly explain them so that other Centaurs and friends can fully understand or appreciate. Pilots talking to pilots can become an alien conversation to others. This is true of other groups also like crew chiefs and door gunners. We should be sure to keep that in mind as we write our remembrances. If the technical aspects of the story become lengthy then just attach it at the end for those who are curious or want to better understand.

Here is an example: "Too Steep!"


29. Why does my browser often not show announced updates to the Centaur website?

Every browser maintains a "cache" of data that allows it to load most often used web addresses more quickly. If you go to a webpage and some recently announced information is not there, then chances are your browser has loaded the older "cache" version instead of the new upgraded one.

Try "reloading" the page. In Safari browser there is a little counterclockwise twisted arrow button that does this. If you roll your mouse over it, it will say something like "Refresh". In Google Chrome browser the same symbol exists and upon rollover it says "Reload this page". The one in Firefox browser is a little harder to spot, and the arrow twists clockwise. Upon rollover it says "Reload current page". Internet Explorer has a similar symbol and the rollover says "Refresh (F5)".

If you think that there may be several older pages in your browser cache then clear the whole cache. Your new pages may load a little slower the first time since it is streaming from the website server and not coming from the cache on your local hard drive. Under the Safari menu, go to "Empty Cache…". In Google Chrome select "Clear Browsing Data…". Firefox makes it a little harder. You need to go to the "History" menu and select "Clear Recent History…", and make sure that the "Cache" box is checked. For Internet Explorer 8 & 9 go to "Tools" and click "Delete Browsing History…".

For additional info check out this Indiana University website. (http:/

30. Why don't we have a website Guestbook?

Having a Guestbook was suggested long ago and is an option that has been left open. It has not been addressed at this point mostly because it is a pain to set up and run. Additionally, the Centaur Society has filled that role to some degree. If a person is interested enough to write in and talk, then why not just do it with the Society?

Keeping a Guestbook active and running is a lot of trouble and requires a full time host. Over time, most Guestbooks seem to fade away. Look around on the web; guestbooks have gaps in their conversations of years.

Do keep in mind that a Guestbook opens our website to the world, allowing spammers, demented souls, and other human debris to write whatever they want into our book. Guestbooks would have a better chance with a strong full time Host (Moderator/Webmaster), who could eliminate most of the meaningless drivel and heavy BS.

With all that said, we can have a Guestbook anyway if someone volunteers to run it. Our website host "iPower" will show us how to set up a "Guestbook Blog" and tie it to the website. Although tied to the website it would be a separate operation ran by a Guestbook Blog Host or Webmaster.


31. What is an "Essay" for the Centaur website:

Information provided by a Centaur in a text format, an audio recording, or a video clip, that presents detailed information about the Centaur experience in Vietnam. It is not necessarily a war story as much as it is an encyclopedic (wikipedia) entry, that provides more understanding and clarity to our story.

a. It could be used to describe how an individual Centaur felt about something like his job, or how things were done, or even nice words about other people or groups.

b. It could be a simplified explanation of how a weapon or piece of equipment works; or what made it work better. Doug Olsen (Crew Chief Hvy Weapons 1967) indirectly talks about using a can of lima beans to better feed the ammo into his door gun ( ). There were many tricks like this that worked and some that caused new problems. All these stories are interesting and tell a lot about us.

c. It could be a discussion of Tactics used, or how they were developed. Bob Graham (Gun Pilot 1966), in his reunion video, talks about the early arguments of how to attack a target with rockets. The "Steep angle" (high altitude) method, provided accuracy yet exposed the aircraft to ground fire; The "Shallow angle" (low altitude) method, provided better protective cover for the aircraft yet spread the rockets over a larger longitudinal area.

Many books have been written about the employment/tactics of helicopters. However we are not particularly interested in them at the website, except as maybe as a reference in an essay. We want to know what you, the Centaur, thought; what you did; what worked and didn't; and why. A war story might be used to help make a point.

d. It could be a supplement to a specific war story, adding more knowledge about things mentioned the the story that could give the reader a better understanding. An example comes from Jim Walt's (Scout Pilot 1969) reunion video. He talks about the seemingly simple task of tossing a hand grenade from a helicopter. It is not simple. It takes skill, training and timing from both the scout pilot (altitude, speed, direction) and the crewman tossing the grenade (taking what the pilot gives him, estimating timing, angle and release). The rotor blades and tail rotor may come into play in some situations. The skids are just plain in the way. At least one crewmember was killed with his own grenade by not employing some of these skills.

e. It could be an essay that pops up from an everyday life experience or discussion at home. Example: Let's say you were the Mess Sergeant or part of the Mess crew for the Centaurs and now your young adult grandson says "Grandpa. What was it like having to feed the men of this high energy unit in combat?" Even I would like to hear that story. (I mean if it was a good and accurate story with some details and explanations.) Wouldn't that be great to have on our website?

f. It could be a vehicle essay. How many vehicles did we have anyway? I think we had some 26 vehicles and drivers! What type were they, how used, how managed, did we train our own drivers, did we steal vehicles, did we destroy vehicles, maintenance problems, etc? Some of the drivers may have pulled double duty as door gunners, maintenance or headquarters guys. Who drove for the Commander? Who drove the wrecker? I'd like to have these stories, or at least some of them, on our website. Where is SGT Chapman our 1967 motor sergeant, and how about some of the other ones from the other tours?

Most of us were so busy doing our own jobs that we never even thought much about having a Motor Pool, a Supply room, an Armament Section, a Mess Hall, or a Headquarters element. Those guys did their jobs so well that they were almost invisible; Always there, always working, always holding up their end of the mission. Operations and Maintenance sections were very visible because they determined whether we flew or not. But even then, how many crewmembers really understood the day to day job, and the complexities of making those sections work efficiently? Looking back we all thank God for them. Now let us expend some energy to find them and get their stories out.

These essays, or word pictures, need to be written by the men who were there. They are not written to get them recognized as a great author or warrior, but to provide a very real description of a subject written with the heart and sole of a Centaur who was there.

The quality and interest level of our new website can be greatly lifted. A better depth of understanding can be provided to our legacy.



32 .What was "II Field Forces Vietnam" (II FFORCEV)?

II Field Force was a component of U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV) and had its headquarters in Long Binh. Its area of responsibility was the ARVN III Corps Tactical Zone, later renamed Military Region 3, which comprised eleven provinces surrounding Saigon.

See Bob Graham's piece on II Field Force in the War Stories section for more details.

Corps Map
Most have seen the typical South Vietnamese map showing the four Corps areas. We were in III Corps. These Corp areas were not US designations! These were South Vietnamese Army Corps area designations that the US Forces worked in. They existed from 1955 to 1975.

There was another III Corps, United States version, that stayed in the states and provided men and materials for Vietnam. Here is a quote from: http:/

"During the Vietnam War era, the corps (US) supervised the training and deployment of more than 137 units and detachments to Southeast Asia, including the I and II Field Force staffs. The corps also trained more than 40,000 individual replacements for units in Vietnam, for a total of over 100,000 soldiers trained.[17] As the war in Southeast Asia ended, the corps received many units and individual soldiers for reassignment or inactivation. It was also during this period that III Corps units participated in a number of key tests and evaluations that would help determine Army organization and equipment for the next 30 years."

The US Forces within the Vietnamese III Corps were commanded by II Field Force. Here is a quote from

"There were two main reasons for adopting the term "field force" rather than "corps" for the tactical corps-level headquarters about to be introduced into South Vietnam. First, as General Westmoreland pointed out, since the new headquarters was to operate in conformance with existing South Vietnamese corps zones, having two corps designations-one American and one South Vietnamese-in the same tactical zone would have been confusing. Second, the standard U.S. corps headquarters was a fixed organization. Field forces headquarters, on the other hand, would be more flexible and could be tailored to fit precisely the individual mission and could be adjusted to future changes, notably to further expansion of the U.S. effort."


33. Where can I get free copies of 1:50,000 maps of Vietnam?

1. Open our Centaur Map Sheet Finder map.

2. Each Red Square on this index map has a 4 digit number and is divided into 4 smaller squares that are numbered 1 through 4 in a clockwise direction. Each small square represents a different 1:50,000 Map Sheet. For example the Map Sheet for Quang Tri is 6442-4.

3. Make note of the Map Sheet or Sheets that you want to download.

4. Go to the (harder to read) interactive index map from the University of Texas and click on those sheet numbers to download a full version of each Map Section.

The Map Sections will download and appear one at a time on your desktop in a PDF format (Personal Document Format):

TechnoBabble: Most of the map sheets from the Texas Vietnam Topo website will be downloaded as PDF (personal document format), not JPEG. If you want to edit them you may have to do a screen capture of the part you want, then open it up in a photo editing software like Photoshop Elements or a free program like GIMP

If you are on a Mac, just open the PDF in "Preview" (a free Mac program that is on your computer) then "Export" it as a JPEG for use in PhotoShop or Photoshop Elements. Works great. You can just save it to your desktop (it will save as a PDF) then open and manipulate it in PDF.

If you are on a PC you can download the free program "Acrobat Reader" to open the PDF file you just saved and manipulate it in that program. You can export the file to a JPEG from Acrobat Reader and work with it in Photoshop Elements or a free photoshop like program GIMP.


34. Where can I get an inexpensive copy of Michael Kelley's book "Where We Were In Vietnam"?

Go to this website:


...and download a $10 ibooks version (digital) for use on your computer or pad. It is handy having it on the computer for searching and cut/paste of information.


35. How can I email a large number of photos or movies to Webmaster for use on the Website?

Try this short video explaination. Other free services are available online. Find one you like.


36. Why doesn't my "Back" Button work?

When it works:

It works when I am on the Centaur website. If I click on a Hyperlinked word (blue/underlined), that page is tucked away and the new destination page is shown. Only one "Tab" is open in the Browser. I can click the "Back" button on the Centaur screen or the "Back" button on my Browser and the place I was goes away and my email opens back up.

When it doesn't work:

With most email programs, if you click on text in an email that is Hyperlinked (usually blue/underlined text), the link that you go to is opened in another tab, a second tab, of the Browser. So you have 2 tabs now showing at the top of your Browser, the one you just went to with the Hyperlink and the other is the original email page. Your back button will not take you back to the email tab from this new tab (new place on the internet) that you are at.

If you want to go back to your email to read on, you need to click on the email tab (at the top of your Browser) to reopen it. The other tab, the one you went to a minute ago, remains in the list of tabs at the top (unless you closed it) but is not showing on your screen. You can go back to it by clicking on that tab. If you have a lot of tabs open it might get confusing.

Example: Try this:
1. Quit your browser and reopen (so nothing else is open in the Browser).

2. Open the website homepage. Note at the top of your Browser you only have one tab open. It says something like "" in that tab window.

3. Click on "Roster". Then click on "Friends". Notice that with each click you still remain in the same tab. There is only one tab at the top of your Browser window.

4. Click the "Back" button on the Centaur screen (lower right) or the "Back" button on your Browser (usually upper left of screen). Click again. Each click takes you back to the previous screen, yet stays in the same tab.

5. Open the last Centaur "Update" email. Find a Hyperlinked word or words (blue/underlined text) and click on it.

6. Look to the top of your Browser window and notice that a second tab has been added. Your email page has been grayed out and the new tab that you just went to is active.

7. Click on the email (grayed out tab) to go back to the email you were reading. Find another Hyperlinked text and click on it. A new tab, a third tab, opens up.

8. At this point you can see three tabs across the top of your browser and can click on any of them to bring them to the fore front; or you can click the small x on any of them to close that tab.

(There may be some small variations based on which Browser, which version and which computer you are using)


37. Viewing and Controlling a Slide show:

When you open the slideshow in your browser, it will automatically begin loading. It will take some time to begin loading the first few photos; Then it will continue to load more photos as you are watching the first ones.

If you move your mouse over the current slide that is showing, a "Control Bar" appears at the bottom. It goes away when the mouse is moved off the picture so you don't have to look at it. On an iPad you may have to click on the photo to get the Control Bar back.

The white arrowhead on the left side of the Control Bar is the "Start the show" button. When the Show is running the arrowhead turns into two little parallel hash marks (the universial symbol for "Pause"). When you click the hash marks the slideshow will stop and the Arrowhead will replace it.

The time hack to the right of the Start arrowhead tells you how far you are into the slideshow in time. Sometimes this is handy in locating a slide that you want to go back and look at later.

The long black bar is the timeline of the slides. If you press and drag the small diamond object in the black line, you can quickly scan the slides to any point you like. If all the slides have been loaded by your browser then sliding this diamond will scan through the pictures about as quickly as you can move the mouse. If the show just started then there are many more photos to load and dragging the diamond to a new photo may be slow.

The best way to quickly scan all photos just as fast as you can move your mouse, is to let the whole show load (the black bar of the control panel is all black once the slides are loaded), then press and hold with your mouse on the diamond in the black bar and just drag it left and right.

The two small arrows pointing away from each other on the far right of the Control Bar is the symbol for "Go to full screen". In the full screen mode the controls will appear when you move the mouse. After a few seconds of non use the controls will hide themselves. Just move the mouse to get them back. You press the two small arrows icon to get back to the regular sized slide show. Some computers will go back to the original size slideshow if you click the "esc" key on the keyboard.

Will my submitted photos be retouched/restored?

Yes, eventually. Retouching; digitally cleaning up and making photos look better, is very time consuming. In order to get the photos up on the website more quickly they can be directly assembled into a "Slide Show" using iPhoto (Picasa on the PC). Some limited retouching and cropping may be needed. That slideshow is then coded into the website for display. A text file with slide numbers is presented to allow captions to be collected from the owner and others. As time permits these slides can be individually retouched and placed into the better presentation of a Photo Album.

Slide Show: This presentation is handy because it gets the photos out quickly for everyone to view. Input can be collected; memories jogged, and they provide photos of Centaurs that can be used as MyPages and TextPhotos.

Photo Album: The best presentation of photos for the website is in a "Photo Album". This format requires that each photo be retouched and coded into a presentation program on the website.

A collection of 50 photos could take 4 to 10 hours of computer time to touch up depending on their condition/resolution and the skills of the artist. Doing this part time could add up to two or three weeks. Another several hours is required for coding the photos into an album program within "Dreamweaver" our website building software. Any captions are then added by being typed directly into the code line of each photo.

What is the difference between a Slide Show and a Photo Album?

The number one reason to have a Slideshow is that it can be created relatively quickly when compared to doing a Photo Album. That way everyone can go online and see the pictures right now instead of waiting months or even years from now, when the more time consuming Photo Album is eventually produced.

Compare the quality of the original Slideshow of Bob Forringer to his updated Photo Album (additional photos were added).

Why is the Photo Album so much trouble? Example: The Bob Graham Slideshow has over 400 mostly great photos. They are cropped and slightly edited with the limited editing tools in iPhoto (like Picasa on the PC). To retouch these slides in Photoshop, create thumbnails and code it all into a Photo Album, with captions, would take around 100 hours of computer work (if you are good at it).

For the webmaster to do this would mean shutting down the current work of adding new historic data to the website; maybe for months. So Bob's photos will have to wait a while longer.

Why bother with a Photo Album if it is so much trouble? Why not just stay with the Slideshows?

Four main reasons:

1. The quality of the photos can be dramatically better; nametags and tail numbers can be better read in many cases.

2. The thumbnails of the Photo Album can be quickly scanned by the viewer looking for specific photos. Quick and easy. It is much more difficult to do find photos in the slideshow version.

3. The captions are independent of the photos (not blocking any part of the photo) and can be corrected, edited or updated without having to redo the photo. This can save a huge amount of time as the website grows and more info becomes available. Also, in the Slideshow the captions are inconveniently maintained in a seperate text file and not with the individual photos; the have to be manually matched up.

4. Photo ID (and this is the most important). Each photo is coded, therefore it can be linked to from anywhere on the website where it might be needed. This means that if a new war story would be enhanced by an existing photo in a Photo Album, that photo can be brought directly into the story using HTML code without duplication of the photo (it is fast and saves space on the web server).

Additional feature in the future: It would not be difficult (because of the Photo Album coding) to provide buttons that might bring up catagories of photos for review; like show me all the photos on the website with mini guns; or every photo of Cobras; or every photo of Nui Ba Den. Gathering/identifying photos for these categories would be a big job but could be done by anyone; computer experience nont required. The webmaster would then code those notes in to create a button that brings up the noted photos.

Here are some examples of the differences in quality in the Slideshow and Photo Album presentations. Note that the "Original" may be touched up a bit in the Slideshow software. (Original vs Retouched):




Are people checked to see if they are really a Centaur in good standing?

Yes. Sometimes a DD214 service record is required. Claims of unsupported awards and honors are not allowed. See our article "Stolen Valor".




1. How to Search the Centaur Website for anything: (for Smart Phones, Tablets and all computers) - Nov2021

••• Search the whole website: (Which now includes all the Newsletters) Nov2021

1. Go to Google Search
or just go to and type in the Search window.

2. type: site: (that is site, colon, space,

3. then type a space, then type your word or words to search for

4. click enter

Example 1: a general word search - no quotes
Search for all entries of the name Allcock
type - site: Allcock
Click Enter
You will see over 300 entries.

Example 2: a more specific search by using quotes
Search for "Allcock"
type - site: "Allcock"
Click Enter
You will see about 30 entries.

If you put quotes around the words, like “battle of tay ninh” you will find only 3 entries.


•••  Search a single page on the website:

Use the built in capability of both Mac and PC's to do a "Page Search"; any page on the internet, anytime. You may already use it.

It is keyboard shortcut "Command F" on the Mac and "Control F" on the PC. With that keystroke a "search box" appears in the upper right or lower left of your computer. Type some letters into that box and hit the return/enter key.

All instances of those letters that you typed will be remembered by the computer and the page will scroll to the first instance, highlighting it for you. It will also show you how many instances have been found. Each time you hit the return/enter key, or the up down arrows, it will jump to the next instance on the list.

Try this: 
1. Go to the Roster page on our site. The list starts with "ABRAHAMSON".

2. Press the Control Key (Command Key on the Mac) and the "f" key.

search3. Type in "Ru" into the small search box that appears (usually upper right or lower left of window).

4. Hit the Return/Enter key. It will find and highlight the "Ru" of "CATANIA, Russell" and note that their are 24 instances of "Ru".

5. Hit the Return/Enter key again. It goes to and highlights the "RU" of "GONZALEZ-RUIZ, Juan"

6. Note that each time you hit the Return/Enter key it jumps to and highlights the next iteration of "RU"

Then try this:
1. Go to the search window where it shows the "Ru" that you typed and spell out "Runyon", then hit the Return/Enter key

2. With the additional letters added it only finds the one entry of "Runyon".

Other ways to use this feature:
1. Lets say you remember the man's name was Glenn and you don't even know if it was his first name or last. Type "Glen" into the search box and find that there are 11 times that "Glen" is shown on the roster. Toggle thru them with the Return/Enter key.

2. If you want to find everyone on the list that served in 1973. Type "1973" in the search box and find that 69 people are listed. You can quickly toggle thru them.

Note: You may find errors while you are doing this. Be sure to let Dale know so he can keep our Roster accurate.
The numbers shown in the examples may change as more names are added to the list.

3. Remember that you can use this feature on ANY single page on the web. Say you are on a page with lengthy information like our Glossary page , and for some reason you are interested in whether the very common word "Shit" is used anywhere. Do the keyboard thing, type in the word and see that, yes, it is used 12 times (although they forgot Burning Shit).

4. Go to the War Story Essays page. This is a hard page to find things. Use the "Search" trick as above and be able to find stories or arthurs that you are interested in.



1a. How to search the text on a specific web page using the Smart Search bar of iPhone/iPad:
...Open Safari on your iPhone or iPad.
...Open a web page in Safari.
...Tap the Smart Search bar.
...Type the word or phrase that you want to find on the page.
...Tap the word or phrase under "On this Page".











42. How can I find old articles from the Tropic Lightning Newspaper?

Major updates to the website go out to the Centaur Society Members frequently (currently on a daily basis).

Go to our Links page and click on the Tropic Lightning News icon. This website has scanned most of the newspaper articles and photos listed by date.


43. What is a LRRP?

LRRP is pronounced "Lurp" and stands for Long Range Recon Patrol. The history of these amazing Army soldiers is told very clearly in a 47 minute History Channel special.

Mark Ponzillo tells the story of the "Centaur" LRRP's. Also see the stories from Gene Tucker, Bill Eberhart, Marshal Huckaby, Jose Vera, and Dave Martinez


44. How to find and use the HTML address of any website page.

Every page on our website has an address. It is found in the "Address Bar" or "Location Bar" of the browser that you are using. All of our (Centaur) addresses begin with "". For example: if you click on the "Roster" button, the address of that page is:

Here is what the Address Bar looks like in the Internet Explorer Browser (other Browsers are similar):


To identify that page to someone else, just copy that address and paste it into an email to them.

Techno babble: Some pages have additional "markers" or "anchor points", meaning that you can go to a specific spot on that same page if markers or anchor points have been set. For Example: all the buttons on the right side of the "Roster" page go to a different area of the Roster page. Click on the "MNO" button and the page will shift down to that section of the page. The address now is: You are still on the same main page, but just at a different location on that page (indicated, in this case, by the "#mno".)

45. Why is our Glossary different from other Vietnam Glossaries on the internet?.

There are many Vietnam War oriented Glossaries and Terminology pages on the web. Some are huge. Not a one of them has every single term used in the Vietnam War; each has something missing. Their main goal just seems to be big so they can get a lot of hits.

1. Ours has no intention of becoming a huge, all encompassing, "document" or major reference for the world to use concerning Vietnam. The purpose of our Glossary is to be a supplement to our website. It is a device that makes our site more understandable to viewers. Most importantly, our definitions need to be written in our terms; Centaur terms. They must answer the question "What did this word, phrase or acronym mean to the Centaurs?" It may even have had different meanings in 1966 and 1972. That should be mentioned. How big it gets is not relavent.

2. The terms used on our website are linked directly to that specific term in our Glossary. We do not just send the viewer to our Glossary and make them search for the term, as many sites do. We have taken the time to add code that takes the viewer directly to that term in the Glossary so they can quickly jump from the story that they are reading to the Glossary and back without disrupting their thought or the storyline.

3. Source linking: Another thing that we do is try to find a story or article that uses, or better describes, a term that is in the Glossary. For example: Someone looking in the Glossary at "People Sniffer" can read the definition; but at the end is a "see article" button that takes them to our Discussion page where Centaurs are discussing some People Sniffer missions.


46. What is the red and black patch worn by some F Troopers on their left shoulder?

patchCobra and LOH crewmembers wore this patch on their left shoulder over the 25th Infantry Division patch or later over the 1st Aviation Brigade patch to indicate that they were part of a "Hunter Killer Team".

See also War Story Discussion HunterKiller Patch









47. Proper wear of the Cavalry Stetson Hat and Spurs

1. Stetson: The Stetson will be black in color. Rank and regimental or ordinary cavalry brass will adorn the Stetson. The braid will be worn around the base of the Stetson. Troopers will wear the appropriate braid color. Braid ends or acorns will be to the front of the Stetson and no more than an acorn length over the brim. Crossed sabers will be placed on the front of the Stetson. Organizational sabers are authorized if assigned or affiliated to the regiment. Rank will be worn 1/8" from the bottom of the sabers, centered.

a. General Officers: Solid Gold
b. Field Grade and Company Grade Officers: Gold and Black
c. Warrant Officer:

(1)CW4,CW5 - Solid Silver
(2)WO1,CW2,CW3 - Silver and Black

d. Non-Commissioned Officer: Yellow

(1) The nape strap will be threaded through the appropriate eyelets in the brim of the Stetson so that strap goes around the back and the buckle is fastened and centered on the wearers head.
(2) The sides of the crown shall not be pushed in or otherwise modified. The brim will be flat with a slight droop at the front.
(3) The Stetson will be worn on the head with the brim parallel to the ground.
(4) Occasions for wearing the stetson: Squadron dining-ins/outs, formal events in dress blues, gatherings of spur holders, professional gatherings such as AAAA and any other event or function as designated by Saber 6.

2. Spurs: Spurs will be worn as a matched pair. The type of spurs allowed are set by each unit but most often they are Prince of Wales style spurs.

a. Low Quarters: The spurs will be affixed to the footgear midway between the upper portion of the sole and the lower part of the heel along the seam of the shoe. The U shaped portion shall enclose the shoe in such a manner as to assure that the rowel of the spurs curves down to the ground. The strap will be fastened over the instep of the footgear in such a manner that the buckle faces to the outside of the foot.
b. Boots: The spurs will be affixed to the footgear so that the U shaped portion follows the seam of the ankle support. The strap will be fastened over the instep of the footgear in such a manner that the buckles face the outside of the boot.
c. Single Soldiers will wear the rowels of their spurs pointing up, while married Soldiers will do so with their rowels pointing down.

3. Occasions for Wear: Spurs and stetsons will be worn at all cavalry functions, otherwise, they will not be worn outside of the cavalry footprint. Stetsons and spurs may be authorized by the local command, but are not authorized for wear at Army functions not specifically dedicated to cavalry. Wear with civilian attire may be restricted by a local commander, but otherwise the spurs and Stetson may be mixed with civilian attire when rank has been removed.[1]

Credit to:



49. The Wall
A little history most people will never know.

Interesting Veterans Statistics off the Vietnam Memorial Wall.

There are 58,267 names now listed on that polished black wall, including those added in 2010.
The names are arranged in the order in which they were taken from us by date and within each date the names are alphabetized. It is hard to believe it is 57 years since the first casualty.

The first known casualty was Richard B. Fitzgibbon, of North Weymouth, Mass. Listed by the U.S. Department of Defense as having been killed on June 8, 1956. His name is listed on the Wall with that of his son, Marine Corps Lance Cpl. Richard B. Fitzgibbon III, who was killed on Sept. 7, 1965.

There are three sets of fathers and sons on the Wall.
39,996 on the Wall were just 22 or younger.

8,283 were just 19 years old.

The largest age group, 33,103 were 18 years old.
12 soldiers on the Wall were 17 years old.

5 soldiers on the Wall were 16 years old.

One soldier, PFC Dan Bullock was 15 years old.

997 soldiers were killed on their first day in Vietnam ..
1,448 soldiers were killed on their last day in Vietnam ..

31 sets of brothers are on the Wall.

Thirty one sets of parents lost two of their sons.

54 soldiers attended Thomas Edison High School in Philadelphia . I wonder why so many from one school.

8 Women are on the Wall, Nursing the wounded.

244 soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor during the Vietnam War; 153 of them are on the Wall.

Beallsville, Ohio with a population of 475 lost 6 of her sons.

West Virginia had the highest casualty rate per capita in the nation. There are 711 West Virginians on the Wall.

The Marines of Morenci - They led some of the scrappiest high school football and basketball teams that the little Arizona copper town of Morenci (pop. 5,058) had ever known and cheered. They enjoyed roaring beer busts. In quieter moments, they rode horses along the Coronado Trail, stalked deer in the Apache National Forest . And in the patriotic camaraderie typical of Morenci's mining families, the nine graduates of Morenci High enlisted as a group in the Marine Corps. Their service began on Independence Day, 1966. Only 3 returned home.

The Buddies of Midvale - LeRoy Tafoya, Jimmy Martinez, Tom Gonzales were all boyhood friends and lived on three consecutive streets in Midvale, Utah on Fifth, Sixth and Seventh avenues. They lived only a few yards apart. They played ball at the adjacent sandlot ball field. And they all went to Vietnam . In a span of 16 dark days in late 1967, all three would be killed. LeRoy was killed on Wednesday, Nov. 22, the fourth anniversary of John F. Kennedy's assassination. Jimmy died less than 24 hours later on Thanksgiving Day. Tom was shot dead assaulting the enemy on Dec. 7,Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day.

The most casualty deaths for a single day was on January 31, 1968 ~ 245 deaths.

The most casualty deaths for a single month was May 1968 - 2,415 casualties were incurred.

For most Americans who read this they will only see the numbers that the Vietnam War created. To those of us who survived the war, and to the families of those who did not, we see the faces, we feel the pain that these numbers created. We are, until we too pass away, haunted with these numbers, because they were our friends, fathers, husbands, wives, sons and daughters. There are no noble wars, just noble warriors.


50. What is the difference in the website categories of War Stories (Video, Essay, Discussion);
and how are they different from items under the "PhotoAudioFilm" navigation button?


War Story Videos: (digital videos).............................

1. When a Centaur speaks and is video recorded we call it a "War Story Video" (regardless of subject material and assuming it pertains to the Centaur Legacy). Examples are videos from the reunions and videos made at home and sent in (like TJ Lange videos).

2. Other videos from the web that help with our legacy mission (like the History Channel movie).

War Story Essays: (text & photos)............................

1. A written article from a Centaur or about a Centaur. Pretty much self contained but may have comments from other Centaurs at the end of the article.

2. Print articles from newspapers, magazines, journals etc. (like Tropic Lightning News or Stars and Stripes).

War Story Discussions: (pieces of Info).......................

1. The Discussion Page was started so we could have a place for unfinished things. Someone comments on a subject, or asks a question. As the comments come in they are added to the Discussion. Theoretically at some point all this could be rewritten into an Essay

2. Summary of the subject, then email comments, other text, photos, and links to other parts of the website (like appropriate Video and Essays).



We needed a place to contain all the personal in country Photos (Photo Albums and Slideshows), the reel to reel audio tapes that many sent home to loved ones, and the 8mm Super 8 films taken in Nam and restored. They can be linked to the War Stories when appropriate.


51. How to post items on the Centaur website:

Currently the Webmaster is the only person that has access to changing things on the website. If you want to change or add something to the site it must go to the Webmaster for processing.

Send stories or comments in plain text, either in an email or in an email with an attached Text Document. Send in scanned photos, attached to an email, in as high a resolution as possible and uncompressed. Large files, like many photos, can be sent using Dropbox. If you have video or film, contact the webmaster to get it processed for the website.

53. What is the Centaur "Subscriber List"?

Anyone, Centaur or nonCentaur, who is interested in receiving the Centaur Newsletters (used to be called Centaur "Update" email) can be added to this list. Their names and emails remain confidential and known only to the Centaur Webmaster and one other CIVO Director. All Newsletters will be emailed as blind copy. This version of the Newsletter will not contain some of the private business issues of the Centaur Society.








54. Was D Troop (Air) ever opcon to the 2nd Bde or 25th Avn Bn, 25th Inf Div?

Ray Clark, CPT, Commander D Troop (1969): - 9Jan2019
As I recall we were attached to the 25th Avn Bn and under operational control of 2d Bde in late 1969. That may have started in November 1969 but I am not certain of that. Don't know how long it lasted. I distinctly remember being called to 2d Bde HQ that November and sitting with the Bde XO and Ops Officer and working through procedures of how we would operate with them. So that may have been when it started.

At the same time we were attached to the 25th Aviation Battalion. The Avn Bn CO was my direct boss. That is a distinct memory too as I clearly remember being in his office and getting direction several times. I have never forgotten the day he told me our scout pilots could not shoot first any more, that they had to be fired on first or get permission to shoot before they could fire. That was a few days after the Division CO called me to his office and ate my butt out because one of the scouts had killed a Vietnamese man at Trang Bang that day. I never passed the don't-shoot-first-order to anyone.

The 3/4 Cav Squadron HQ did our admin, the Avn Bn CO directed me and wrote my efficiency report. We went where 2d Bde directed us. We went on no missions with the Avn Bn. I also got my butt ripped by the 2d Bde CO once when one of my team leaders, a WO that day, refused to drop a 10-man-team in a clearing in a big fight in Dec 69. Can you imagine a WO refusing a combat order from a Lieutenant Colonel Bn commander? Our boys had big ones. Thought I would be relieved over that one. Only thing that saved me, I think, was that the Bde CO himself put a rifle company in where they had wanted us to insert our ten man team.

Jim Kreil - LOH Scout Crew Chief (1969). 9 Jan 2019
I know we provided First light and last light missions, C and C missions and sometimes three teams would be at Tay Ninh, and Dau Tieng standing by for anyone.  I know we had a hootch during day at Tay Ninh,  and they let us in the O club during standbys at Dau Tieng.









55. Did Centaur aircraft ever receive the engine exhaust modification nicknamed the Toilet Bowl?

Frank Dillon: Toilet bowl exhausts were installed on Slicks and Snakes spring of 72.

In 1972 the shoulder-launched, heat-seeking SA-7 "Strela" Surface To Air missile (SAM) was introduced by the enemy. To increase the survivability of U.S. aircraft a series of modifications were hastily created. In the case of our AH-1's and UH-1H helicopters auxiliary scoops on the engine intakes and "Toilet Bowl" shaped exhaust diffusers was the answer. It was called a "Strella Kit". Some documents called it "Hot plume exhaust suppressor".

Go to Ken Mick's MyPage and look at his aircraft (second MyPagePhoto). His was one of the first.











56. How to copy your photos for publishing on the website:

If you have a scanner and know how to use it, do so; but be sure to scan one photo at a time and at a high resolution. The overall size of each photo should be around a megabyte. See instructions for using our Google Share Folder to transfer your files to the Webmaster. (item #35 in Help/Answers section)

Use your new digital smart camera. If you have the original photos,

1. take them outside on a nice day (or indoors without floresent lights); lay them one at a time on a flat surface (you may need to put something flat and heavy on the corners to hold it flat);

2. turn the flash off on your camera; turn on the Macro or close up feature if you have one, otherwise just leave in in "Auto"; hold the camera perpendicular; move it to eliminate shadows or reflections and take a picture. Use a tripod if you want to keep it more steady. Take the photo. Or do the same using your Smart Phone.

3. transfer the photos from your camera/phone to your computer. Do not make corrections or do resizing. Don't use Picassa or other editing programs for this because they automatically prepare them for the web and much data is lost.

4. If you have only a few photos then just attach the unedited, unmessed with photos, directly to an email and send in to the webmaster. For many photos use our Google Share Folder

This process also works great for copying documents like awards or orders. I have a good scanner that I haven't hooked up in years because the camera/iPhone is easier, faster, and the quality may even be better. 

Please provide Captions:

Every slide and print photo needs a "Caption". A caption is any text information that makes the picture more informative. Names of people and dates are most important. The location, the situation, the relation to war stories, or even a note about a background object in the picture. e.g. "Notice the old canvas topped hootches" or something like that. It might be a note about something that isn't in the photo like "This was my first mission". Be creative. Everyone likes "informative" captions. Please keep the meaningless BS and cute captions to a minimum.

OPTION for Captions:

Get all the pics to the webmaster. They will be place in a slideshow with numbers assigned. The slide show will be sent back to you so you can look at the numbered pics and provide a caption for it into a text file. Webmaste will marry up the captions and pics and upload to the website.








57. Are the photos from the three Centaur Yearbooks available on the website?

Yes. Each Yearbook has been scanned in and can be viewed in the Photos/Slides section (scroll to the bottom) under the PhotoAudioFilm navagation button on the left side of the Homepage. (1970, 1971 Lai Khe, 1971-72)

Go to the website Homepage; click on PhotoAudioFilm navigation button on the left side; scroll down to the bottom of the page and click on the Yearbook you want to see.












58. How to watch the Centaur Videos in Full Screen?

Open a Centaur video in your browser by clicking on it from the website.

Each browser (Mac, PC, and other) has a button on its version of the video control bar that lets you go to Full Screen while playing the video. Yellow arrow points out the button on a MacIntosh. The trick is to find the button that your browser uses and click it. They may have a button to get out of Full Screen mode, look for it, or just hit the "esc" escape key on your keyboard. Below photos show how it is on a MacIntosh screen. Left pic shows a regular screen with movie and right pic shows what happens when you click the Full Screen button. Take the time to find your Full Screen Button.

Regular Screen..................................................... Full Screen





59. How to order Centaur Shirts, Hats and Patches: update 1 Feb 2024

-- Centaur Shirts, Hats, Patches--


Shirts: T-Shirts that come in three colors - Green, Black and Yellow.  Sizes available from Men’s Medium to Men’s 4X large.  They are 100% Cotton and do not shrink. Shirt price is $20 plus $7.50 for shipping one T-Shirt. If you purchase two or three shirts the shipping will increase. The table below indicates our current inventory available to sell

Please contact Tom Dooling at to order your shirts.  If you are coming to the reunion, the remaining inventory of shirts will be available there.

Marty Jenkins has located and will be receiving a dozen of the OLD style Navy Blue Centaur D Troop LOH hats and 10 of the Centaur F Troop Cobra hats. Contact him directly if you are interested in this.




patchesThe Centaur Patches:

To order contact Bruce Karn through email, phone, text, or regular mail.

email: "Karn, Bruce" <>

phone (or Text): 801-668-7003

Mail: Bruce Karn, 383 E 1250 N,Brigham City, Utah 84302

All patches are one dollar each plus shipping.

Cost of shipping in the US is:
1 - 3 patches $1.00
4 - 10 patches $2.50
11 - 20 patches $5.00
21 - 50 patches $7.50
(Payment can be made by check or Paypal)

note: I have some D Troop patches that were the "test" that DO NOT have the "AIR" and Sabres on them if anyone wants any I will include them in their order and they are free. Bruce K.


Note the actual patch background is more white than with this graphic.







Map of South Vietnam (1966-1973)





64. How to search our Centaur Website

1. Go to with you Browser.
2. Type the word "site" and a colon (site:)
3. Then type in our website address (
4. Type a space.
5. Then type in the word or words you want to search for.
6. Click Enter
7. Option: Type quotes around a word phrase if you are seeking to make the search exclusive.

For example: If I wanted to find out everything about Dale Dow, the entry in Google would look like this:

site: "Dale Dow"
note: if you left the quotes off, iinstead of searching for Dale Dow, it would search for all Dales and all Dows.

Give it a try!


65: How to replicate or build something similiar to the Centaur Website:

The question was asked as to how we did it. (Jan 2021)

Supporting Cast:
Do you have enough organized data and people (or the potential for enough people) to establish a working multimedia website? 50 years ago is a long time. There are not many people left considering that you are dealing with a Company or Troop size element. Battalion and Brigade websites have failed from lack of enough people to support it. Without people, their memories and data, the website will stall and only benefit a few. The Centaurs got started a long time ago and have a lot of data and people to work with.see Vets Reunion Beginning

You have to have someone that has the skills to build your site and the time to keep it rolling; particularly if you want to go with multimedia (video/audio). They must have and maintain the equipment and software to do so and be able to afford it.

We are currently trying to grow to where we have assistant webmasters to lighten the load. This is where different sections of the site are totally handled by other members of the webmaster team. This is a big and complicated step that requires a level of time and dedication that is hard coming to most of us old guys. We have two Directors that are currently working on that.

Establish a Board:
One or two people running a website is usually doomed from the start. You need a full team. Not everyone can do the computer work, so that might be one guy, but the other duties need to be spread around. I know you are used to the Army's nine principles of war, including Unity of Command, but it does not work well in this situation.  Our many issues are discussed and decisions are made by committee. It can work this way if you have a good team.

Military Rank has no place here:
Everyone in our group is a PFC, Private Friggin Civilian. First names required. We have to act as a group of equals and treat newbies in the same way. Military Rank and Awards will be one of your biggest problems. You want to recognize both in many cases but it must be done without diminishing the value of the other men. Every man that served deserves full recognition and respect.
Try to have working Board members that are not just in it for the recognition. Having all different ranks and duty positions helps. Having men from each tour of the unit helps. 

Have a Detailed Plan:
Design and standardize your website design/interface upfront. It is really hard to change later. You are free to use any of our designs or ideas.

Interface Design is so important that it is now an occupation. You can use a cookie cutter design (template) if it fits your needs; but we are talking about fonts, sizes, graphics, colors, buttons, hyperlinks, etc, the look and feel of your site as your viewers see it. We spent around a full year getting this done to our satisfaction. 

Save all your video and photos in a high resolution format and in a separate folder on your hard drive. None of this goes up on your site as is. It is kept in case changes are needed. The changes can be made in the high resolution mode.  Also if the technology advances you want to upgrade your site using the higher resolution files. These files are then compressed in an acceptable standard for the website. (for example I work at 3264 x 1836 x 72px for our MyPage graphics, then compress them down to 929 x 523 x 72 for upload to the server.). If you get into movies I have a process that I can share with you which took me a long time to figure out. It is a double compression system that can take a compressed 46meg mov to 12megs and still look good for the website.

Money and Support:
Know that establishing a 501c3 for a tax deductible organization is complicated. If you can't manage your organization on a pass the hat, or benevolent donor basis forget about it. 

Soliciting donations can be a full time job and add a negative element to the mission. People are sick and tired of being approached by organizations with their hand out. There are cases where some of your members now have money and really want to contribute. It may be the only way they can contribute, so let them do so even if you don't need the money. Let them feel good about supporting the mission.

The biggest problem is that someone then has to manage that income. One of our founders we did that on his own for the group and kept the total under the government $5000 limit (apparently they don't bother you if you keep it under 5K). We called it a slush fund.

We currently have no source of income. Our people take care of their own areas of responsibility. Once in a while we will pass the hat for a specific cause. Sometimes money will be donated to help with the reunions.

We get great support from our parent organization the 3/4 Cav Chapter of the 25th Inf Div Association.

Internet Service Provider;
We use iPower. You should shop around. Cost can be $200 to $300 a year when you get as big as we are and with the mulitmedia needs that we have. Minimum 100gig/sec internet service. Autopay so you don't forget and end up having the site shutdown while you try to figure it out.

Webmaster Hardware/Software:
I use Macintosh computers with Dreamweaver, Adobe Photoshop Elements, TextEdit, Final Cut ProX, Compressor, Quicktime, Safari, Firefox, Opera, Miro Video Converter, VLC, Screenshot, Google Earth Pro, Contacts;  sometimes Text Wrangler or BBEdit, Audacity, Pages, Motion. If you have others on your team that can do Photoshop, audio and video (multimedia) then the software costs might be spread around.

Word Press is a free and popular website tool

Need a large primary hard drive and backup (I use two OWC 12TB HD and Apple TimeMachine software). CD/DVD player/cutter (Blue Ray is best for periodic long term double backup), Thumbdrive and SSD card capabilities.

Gaining members:
Define membership requirements and enforce them Centaurs

Produce a Newsletter, monthly or quarterly to let everyone know things are still working. Protect email addresses. Use bcc (blind copy) when appropriate and notify the recipient that you are blind copying others when you use it. 

The Centaur Society was a concept/plan to get more people tied in closer to the website. Like sorting out those who would spend a little time helping from those who just want to watch. It worked well when we were a couple dozen in number. Now with over 400 people involved it has faded away. We may write that out of the website and use its button for something else. This would be a monumental task.

Friends Input:
Often times there will be guys that were not in your unit that have significant information or stories. Have a way to recognize and thank them.
Centaur Friends

Social Media Input:
A great amount of information and coordination can be accomplished with Social Media. One of our Directors runs a Facebook account that brings in a ton of data for the website and helps to find our lost men. It is a lot of work keeping track of hundreds of people. Not everyone can do it.

Mission - Goals:
Define who you are.
State clearly your mission and goals.

You must have blinders on when sorting out what goes on to your site. Set the limits of what is acceptable and what isn't. Intercept the bullshit and one upmanship and eliminate it. Viewers quickly burn out on the guys that just have to continuously shoot the shit and send in funny forwards. 

Accept everyman's memories as presented. Some will be wrong, some can be corrected by the individual, but all should be published. A memory is a memory and who are we to judge it.

Limit bells and whistles. Some sites spend too much time with clever animations, fake website awards and braggadocio which do little to advance the website.

Try to only list links to other websites that will link back to you. We have a Director that is in charge of that.

Oversight, Editing, Glossary, Interactivity:
Your Directors provide oversight and help to keep you out of trouble. You may have other personal friends that like what you are doing and can give you honest feedback. Not pats on the back, but hard counterpoint thoughts.

Assume that millions of people may view your site. All walks of life and different countries. Tune your site to that so that they will return. 
Have a couple of volunteer editors, preferably non military and some one who has at least read The Elements of Style. People you can run things by to make your stories more clear to all. 

Your Glossary needs to be your unit's terminology. For example the word "Checkmate" can mean a lot of things to a lot of different people, but to our unit it has a specific meaning checkmate. When possible link your term to a real. story.

Interactivity is where you are linking (hyperlinking) terms for additional information. People will quit reading if they run into things they don't understand. If you use an acronym like CTZ then link it to the Glossary. If you refer to a battle or incident then link it to that War Story. If you are talking about CPT Jones then link that text to Jones's page.

Protect your site contents with a copyright notice.  Always give credit to articles, photos, and anything with ownership. Request credit when info from your site is used in other publications. Try to get a plug for your website.

Have a long term plan to secure the data of your website in history.
We have some ideas but haven't moved far on this issue other than possibly throwing money at it to keep the site up after we pass.

We have looked into eventually moving the site or site data into the archives at Texas Tech. Also looking at the possibilities of getting into the Library of Congress. 

We will not spend much time on this until our website reaches a reasonable "Completed" status. Right now there are still too many holes. Our Site Map is not complete, many items in the About Us and History sections need to be rewritten. Some pages have major errors that have to be corrected. One of our major sections, Timeline, is only partially. done and has no manager.



67: How to find Maps, Areas of Operation, Check Points for Squadron/Division:

Try these links: Full Map South Vietnam, Specific Map Locations, Interactive Map of Centaur Events, Map Accuracy, Google Earth Pro Interactive, Squadron and Division Check Points, Get My Own Maps, Map Index Page,


68: Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm Award:

Check out this website for some answers: Click Here

John Moore provides this additional information:

Below are the general orders for 3/4 Cav unit awards of the Cross of Gallantry. Use the GO for the time period in the unit. If not on DD214 can use the GO to obtain a DD215. The unit award (ribbon in a gold frame) is issue item. Individual medal is not government issue and would need to be purchased if one received an individual award of the medal. IMO which does not count for much I think GO 8 only authorizes the unit award and not the individual award. But know that the issue of the individual award is a mess.

Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1966 -1968 { view DAGO 1971-48 }
Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1969 { view DAGO 1970-43 }
Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1969 -1970 { view DAGO 1973-05 }
Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1970 { view DAGO 1971-55 }

Troop C additionally entitled to:
Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1966 { view DAGO 1970-03 }
Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1966 -1967 { view DAGO 1971-48 }

Troop F additionally entitled to:
Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM - 28 Jun/31 Aug 72 { view DAGO 1973-32 }


69: Will our website continue to survive (

see Centaur Kiosk idea

The Wayback Machine is our answer untill the Library Of Congress picks us up.

Library Of Congress & Wayback Machine- The Centaur Website lives in History
by Bruce Powell March 2023

see this video report concerning the history of The Wayback Machine

Lynn Peterson Mobley (COL Pete's Daughter) has been following our newsletters and staying in contact with us. Her sister Ellen is married to Kevin Reed a recently retired professor of Computer Science. She shared our Newsletter and website with him and asked if he would be interested in helping us get our website into the Library of Congress. He said yes. I have since corresponded with him, a very nice and very knowledgeable fellow who asked me "Have You Heard of The Wayback Machine?" Turns out that this is an ongoing amazing website that has been recording websites for historical purposes, and has been doing it for decades.

Kevin said “Do you remember the TV Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon?” Mr Peabody made a Time Machine called Wayback. After about 15 years of lost movie/TV tapes (they were recorded over) a couple of guys (U of San Diego) created this website to archive everything on the internet for history, so our society would not make that mistake with our history again. It is open source and runs on donations. YES we are in there from the get go. Our legacy is recorded. Some links and photo may be missing, but the majority of it is there.

Try it out: go to, click on Internet Archive, type in, Click on 2001, then 3 May 2001, and behold, there is the full Centaur Website as published on 3 May 2001! As you click on other dates, the fully captured website of that date is there for viewing. 29 Dec 2014 is the last recorded version of the old website. On 1 August 2014 the first instance of the new Multimedia site is recorded. On 10 Jan 2016 the domain name ended and became eligible for someone to purchase. That is when we removed the website from Charlie’s server (insurance company he worked for) and I created an account with iPower for the new site. We decided to take a new name, instead of paying a fee to keep the old domain name,

Now go back to the archive and type in Click on 27 March 2015 to see the first full capture of the new multimedia website.

I talked to Jim Messina. Jim started the original Centaur Website before the turn of the Century (Charlie Johnson and Bruce Powell Webmasters followed)
“My first reunion was 2000 in Lexington KY. I got some good pictures while there. They ended up on the site. I THINK that's when Charlie Johnson offered up his computer service for the site.” Jim

At about the same time that all this occurred, I had been emailing people at the Library of Congress with this result:
26 Jan 2023: Main Reading Room Librarian
Mr. Powell, Thank you for your reply. The Library of Congress uses an in-house workflow curation tool called the Digiboard. When a website has been selected for archiving, a Library staffer will create a record for the web site that includes such info as topic/subject of the site, a description of the web site, frequency of capture (once, weekly, monthly, quarterly), any special instructions such as archiving a part of the web site in full detail, permission granted to archive and to publicly display or not display, and contact info for the web site owner. Once that record is created, a web crawler will visit the website and capture (harvest) a copy of the site. Once that capture is done, staff may conduct a quality review of the site capture. This is to check for errors or anything the web crawler might have missed, and to be sure the desired content was captured. To answer your questions:

1. The steps necessary to get our website archived so that it will remain available, somewhere, well after we have all passed.
If your site is selected for the Library of Congress Permanent Collections, Digiboard will send an automated email to web site’s owner/web master (you) either notifying or requesting permission to archive your site. Once you approve this this request, the web crawler will be scheduled to visit the site according to the Digiboard’s record instructions on how often to capture the site. The site will become part of the Library of Congress Permanent Collections.

2. Once archived, how would it be accessed by the public, and what would it look like (format)?
There is a time embargo of 1 year on the archived site. The archived copy of your site will largely behave similarly to the live site, but functionality of the archived site may be less and links referred to on your site to other web sites may not work, as external URLs belonging to other organizations require separate permissions. Examples of web archives publicly accessible on the Library Website can be found here:

3. As we continue to update it monthly, for a bit longer, will the archived version be automatically updated or do we need to do something to make that happen?
Not necessarily, the web crawler tool will be scheduled to visit the site according to the Digiboard’s record instructions on how often to capture the site. The archived site, as it was at the time of harvest, will become part of the Library’s Digital Collections.

If you have further questions, please let me know. To learn more about the Library of Congress Web Archive, please visit our Program Page and FAQ. For more information about our archiving process, visit and our FAQ at You can also reach the Web Archiving Team at

Thank you. Will Elsbury

I sent this info to Kevin Reed and asked if he could pick up on this since I can’t follow up on it right now (too many higher priority projects). He said yes.

While exploring the Library of Congress Website I discovered that they appear to be using the same engine (AI) as, but with far less efficiency. We can pursue that anyway as time permits. Knowing that our Legacy is recorded in history with WayBack is a great relief. The problem with WayBack and the Library is that in the future when our website leaves the internet, only those technically inclined will be able to find our history. It’s better than nothing.

It might be possible to keep our website up on the internet long after losing a webmaster, but it would take some planning and money. Maybe a child or a grand child of a Centaur might take it on. They would not have to be a webmaster, just a custodian of the website making sure that the internet provider is paid monthly to keeps the site up online.

A more grandiose option, now that we have a permanent Conference Room that honors our unit, is a Kiosk. It would be a touch screen monitor with the last version of our website installed. Anyone visiting could quickly see everything about us and our history.


70. Want to help us find more Centaurs? It might cost you a little time & money.

We have a poster that can be displayed at various Military events and Veterans Organization meetings.

It can be downloaded from our Google Share Folder in different sizes and formats. Just download the one your printing provider is happy with.

Costs may vary. You would need to come up with the funds yourself to do so.

Let us know if you should take this on. Send a pic of you and the poster, with maybe some other lodge members or at an event, to for posting in our Newsletter.



1. CentaurPostersZIP with all 4 versions. 362megs listed below:

2. CentaurPosterTIFF 8 x 10.6 inches - 300dpi - 22megs

3. CentaurPosterPSD 8 x 10.6 inches- 300dpi - 20megs

4. CentaurPosterTIFF 18 x 24 inches - 300dpi - 111megs

5. CentaurPosterPSD 18 x 24 inches - 300dpi - 350megs


71. How to provide Input to the Website and Newsletter- Email your stuff.

Add your input (text/photos/documents) anytime to the Website or Newsletter by emailing the Webmaster at Add to a story, send a new one, send photos, send in needed corrections. We are not yet smart enough to have a feature where you can add stuff directly. Plus all input is reviewed by the Board before Posting. Feed us! We want to hear from you!

72. How to hard refresh your browser and clear your cache (Eliminate "Not Secure" Alert)

You may have noticed that when you return to a website you’ve visited before, it loads a faster than it did when you first visited it. This is because you browser stores a copy of the website Homepage on your computer.

The browser does this because it is a lot faster for your browser to load the website locally, opposed to downloading the website from the internet again.

Why do I need to hard refresh my browser cache?

Although storing pages to the browsers' cache makes loading pages faster, it can mean that changes made to the website aren't always visible until you perform a hard refresh. A lot of our web design clients notice that when they make changes to their websites, they cannot see the changes when they visit the site.

This is because their browsers have a cached version. In this situation, you would hard refresh your browser to clear the cache and download the new content. Preforming a hard refresh is easy and the commands vary depending on what browser and operating system you are using; normally Control f5 on your keyboard.

This will also fix the erroneous "Not Secure" Alert that might appear when loading our website.

Note that this refresh may take some time to reload the whole page again.